Varicose veins causes, symptoms, methods of treatment and prevention

varicose veins in the legs

Varicose veins are a disease of the venous canals, characterized by impaired blood circulation and changes in the valves. The disease is accompanied by an expansion of the walls and an increase in the length of the vein. The disease provokes blood stagnation, the formation of a node. Requires a doctor's consultation.

Symptoms of varicose veins

At the initial stages of the development of the disease, the sizes of 2 - 3 channels increase. There is no other symptomatology. As varicose veins progress, the following symptoms develop:

  • rapid fatigue of the lower extremities;
  • swelling of the legs;
  • feeling of heaviness;
  • thickening of the venous canals that protrude on the surface of the skin;
  • loss of hair in the affected area;
  • burning sensation and itching;
  • painful sensations in the lower extremities;
  • the formation of cracks, bleeding with minor damage;
  • dermatitis;
  • redness along the venous canal.
  • veins become dark blue, nodes are formed;
  • cramps in the lower limbs.

The reasons

The exact cause of the development of varicose veins cannot be established. However, factors that increase the risk of disease progression have been identified:

  • genetic predisposition. It is explained by the transfer of a non-standard gene, which is responsible for the structure of the vascular channels. From the moment of birth, the child has a weakness of muscle and connective tissues, which leads to increased pressure in the lower extremities;
  • changes in hormonal levels, for example, during the process of carrying a child or during menopause. In the body, the concentration of estrogen decreases and the level of progesterone rises. This leads to a decrease in the tone of the venous wall and vascular occlusion;
  • overweight, provokes slow blood circulation, increased pressure in the abdominal region;
  • a high concentration of sugar in the blood vessels damages the canal walls, creates a favorable environment for the formation of blood clots;
  • excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages provokes dehydration, blood cells thicken, blood clots form, blood circulation is impaired;
  • prolonged physical activity on the lower extremities provokes a decrease in the tone of muscle tissues, blood flow to the heart system slows down, stagnation forms in the legs;
  • congenital abnormalities in the coagulation of blood cells;
  • improperly compiled diet, low concentration of vitamins E and C leads to weakening of blood vessels;
  • constant use of tight underwear provokes compression of the venous canals;
  • kidney disease;
  • constipation of a chronic nature. The disease leads to an increase in the pressure of the intra-abdominal region, which provokes a disturbed outflow of blood;
  • frequent use of high-heeled shoes, the muscle tissue of the lower leg does not move, stagnation is provoked;
  • hot season, frequent dehydration thicken the blood, increase the risk of blood clots;
  • diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as heart failure;
  • overdose of drugs that increase the clotting of blood cells;
  • surgical interventions, blood loss during surgery increases the risk of blood clots.

Stages of development of varicose veins

There are several stages in the progression of varicose veins of the lower extremities:

  • the initial stage lasts from several months to several years, regardless of the patient's age. It is characterized by the absence of vivid signs. It is accompanied by unexpressed soreness of the venous canals, a burning sensation, and rapid fatigue of the legs. Painful sensations intensify in the evening;
  • the second stage is characterized by the development of symptoms. It is accompanied by severe pain, constant muscle tissue spasms, the formation of nodes on the legs, an increase in the thickness of the veins, and itching;
  • the third stage is characterized by an increase in edema, impaired blood circulation, ulcerative foci that do not heal for a long period of time, thrombophlebitis.


Depending on the localization, several types of varicose veins are distinguished:

Varicose veins in the legs and arms

It is diagnosed more often than others, it is easy to treat.

Varicose veins of the small pelvis

It is characterized by similar symptoms to other diseases. The process of urination is disturbed, pain during intercourse or during physical exercise is possible.

Varicose veins of the uterus

It is rarely diagnosed, characterized by painful sensations during intercourse, which are given to the lumbar region.

Varicose veins of the esophagus

More often - concomitant diseases of portal hypertension. It is characterized by the absence of symptoms.


To make a diagnosis, a visual examination and anamnesis are required. Additional examinations show the condition of the valves and venous canals, and make it possible to establish the type and stage of development of the disease. If necessary, the doctor prescribes functional tests to determine the patency of the veins, ultrasound scanning with duplex, phlebography, Doppler ultrasound to assess blood flow. To diagnose varicose veins, use:

  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  • Check-up (comprehensive examination of the body)
  • Computerized electroencephalography
  • Computerized topography of the spine
  • Duplex scanning
  • Ultrasound (ultrasound examination)
  • CT (computed tomography)
  • Onco Check-up - free online consultation

Which doctor to contact

If you suspect varicose veins, you need to contact a phlebologist - a specialized specialist who deals with blood vessels. You can also make an appointment with the surgeon, he will diagnose and select the appropriate treatment.

Varicose Veins Treatment

The course of treatment depends on the individual characteristics of the development of the disease. Medicines improve the functioning of the valves, nourish the walls of the vascular canals, stimulate blood flow, but are unable to eliminate the disease. The patient is made adjustments to the diet, an individual daily regimen is made, and the use of compression clothing is prescribed. Traditional methods help to get rid of pain. If it was not possible to cure the disease by conservative methods, surgery is prescribed. The following methods are commonly used:

  • Manual therapy
  • Physiotherapy
  • Massotherapy
  • Orthopedic insoles
  • Reflexology
  • Ozone therapy
  • Plasma therapy
  • SVF joint therapy
  • Pharmacopuncture


  • Venous bleeding;
  • eczema, develops with prolonged lack of oxygen;
  • superficial thrombophlebitis;
  • the formation of blood clots in deep venous canals;
  • the formation of trophic ulcers;
  • infertility with damage to the veins of the uterus;
  • lethal outcome when a blood clot ruptures.

Prevention of varicose veins

To reduce the risk of developing varicose veins, the following rules must be observed:

  • avoid intense physical exertion on the lower extremities;
  • use medications according to the instructions;
  • stop drinking alcoholic beverages;
  • when sedentary work, do a little gymnastics once an hour;
  • refuse to use squeezing underwear;
  • adhere to a balanced diet;
  • at the first sign of varicose veins, consult a doctor.